Simulation of the shearing of a lap joint. A lap joint describes a technique for joining two pieces of material by overlapping them. In the model shown in Figure W2–1, two aluminum plates are overlapped; a titanium rivet penetrates the two plates, thus connecting them together. The rivet is modeled with C3D8R elements; the plates with C3D8I elements. Because of symmetry, only half of the joint is modeled to reduce computational cost. Frictional contact is assumed.